Keeping Your Lips Kissable in Winter

About Author Marko Visic, M.Pharm.(Master’s in Pharmacy) is a professional pharmacist with years of experience, and is very passionate about truly natural and healthy products.


Winter is here and if, like me, you love snow it is pretty much the best time of the year. You get to wear your ugly Christmas sweaters and dress like an eskimo when going out to make a snowman with family and friends. Despite all the fun parts, there is the unpleasant side to winter as well – icy roads, really low temperatures, and lips that get chapped and cracked.

Seeing everybody dressed up in warm clothes and with winter tires on cars, we can see how well humans can adapt to below freezing temperature. We are really good at protecting ourselves against the cold. Warm clothes, hats, heavy boots, scarfs and gloves all work together to keep us warm. Unfortunately there is one part of our body that doesn’t have the luxury of being protected by layers of clothing – our faces.

Our faces have to be revealed at all times because we have to see where we are going and for others to identify us. This means that the most unprotected body part in the winter also happens to be one of the most important body parts. We spend billions of dollars on face creams, rejuvenation lotions and make-up every year. In short, the face is very important and we are doing everything we can to protect it… but winter takes a bite out of that work.

Our lips tend to get the brunt of the abuse. Due to the act of breathing constantly pushing warm moist air past and sucking in cold dry air the lips sustain some serious abuse during cold winter days. The natural moisture is quickly sapped and lips chap. The standard product of petroleum based lip balm is counter productive and potentially harmful.

To truly protect your lips you need to apply moisturizers and antioxidants to the skin to replenish and rejuvenate the surface. Over the top you then should apply a waxy protectant made with natural products like bees wax to seal in the moisture and protect your lips from the varied environment.

At Go-Nayked.com we carry a number of natural and organic lip care products from scrubs, like Brittanies Thyme’s Organic Lip Scrub, and Burt’s Bees Lip care products. Enjoy winter again with soft supple lips that thrive in the cold air rather than crack and dry… keep your lips kissable!

Get Your Man to Lose the Movember Beard

About Author Marko Visic, M.Pharm.(Master’s in Pharmacy) is a professional pharmacist with years of experience, and is very passionate about truly natural and healthy products.


Last month we covered the Movember trend to grow a beard during the month of November to raise awareness of men’s cancer issues. December brings in the holidays and for most women hopefully a fully shaved dude in their lives. If not then use Christmas to turn the tables and let Santa play on your team. We at Go-Nayked.com are just about to give you the best gift idea for men with over-attached beard issues.

But before you go off and spring for a high end shaving cream or brand new razor it is important to understand why and how men shave that scruffy patch work of hair off their chinny-chin-chin.

How men shave? Here are a couple of pointers about beard shaving:

  • Start with scissors – remove the major lengths of hair with a good pair of scissors.
  • Apply shaving cream over the stubble
  • Shave in smooth motions making sure to rinse the blade of build up
  • Apply a lotion to soothe the skin

One thing to remember is that most men already have their favorite shaving blade and wouldn’t change it for the world. Where you can get Santa’s aid is in finding a new shaving cream that gets him in the mood to try it out. If you want to make shaving cream a present, you have to pick a really special one. You’ll find just the thing in our Go-Nayked.com marketplace. The perfect shaving cream gift for this Christmas has a name and it’s called Nurture my Body – Organic Shave Cream.

This is no ordinary shaving cream that an average man would use. It doesn’t have that industrial look to it, nor does it contain health hazardous substances such as parabens and sulfates the mass produced shaving creams are known for. This is a truly organic and non-foaming shaving cream that will soften the skin and make the beard go right off at the gentlest touch of the razor.

Rather than fight about shaving off that Movember mug use the holidays to your advantage and buy your man a great shaving cream package from Go-Nayked.com.

Heavy Duty Beard Balm After Movember

About Author Marko Visic, M.Pharm.(Master’s in Pharmacy) is a professional pharmacist with years of experience, and is very passionate about truly natural and healthy products.


In the past, the month of November was a season of transition full of excitement about the winter and the holidays just around the corner. Today that has changed.. blame Maxim Magazine, Instagram, or selfies but in the end… It’s not November… It’s Movember.

The idea of Movember is simple. Just leave your beard growing throughout the month to raise awareness for men’s health issues such as prostate cancer. I have to say I welcome the idea very much; so much so that I always make a contest between my male friends about who is going to grow the most manliest beard.

It all starts with ‘give me a photo of your shaved beard with 31st of October newspaper cover’ and ends with all of us having quite awesome beards by the end of November. The natural thing, of course, with Movember gone would be to shave it off.

However, pride comes in the way. With the start of December we notice how cool we look with our newly grown beards and the effect on the ladies was very positive. ‘I’ve grown this beard in Movember but am aware of men’s health issues all year round’ becomes a perfect icebreaker. That’s why I and my company are always leveraging our beards in December.

But there are beards and then there are beards. After a month of growing a beard one realizes that some trimming and styling will give you the extra edge with your overall look. The beard actually grows in various directions and it’s quite hard to fix it and make it look both natural and fitting to your face and aesthetics; it is hard to show up at work with a scruffy face muff.

About two years ago my friends and I started experimenting with different oils and waxes to enhance our beard’s appearance. We now have the best solution ever created but before we get there it is time for the funny story of the journey.

It was a 2nd of December and we all got together for a beer with all of our beards intact… well, sort of. One friend’s beard was sparkling as if he had run into a bottle of pixie dust on the way to the bar. Of course it was memorable and you can see it right away but the jokes about his beard started falling one after the other until the poor guy finally broke and revealed that he used ‘some kind of olive oil to polish it’. That was just too much for us and we laughed throughout the night but the next morning we all went searching for something that could make our beards stand out.

Personally I was after coconut oil because it gave a nice shine and it smelled sweet. However, I ended up smelling like a coconut and having so shiny a beard it reflected sunlight in the midst of December. I concluded that these oils are not appropriate method to beautify my beard.

A friend of mine tried with wax. Unlike my beard his was very chaotic to tame and you could see how he subdued the mind of the beard to his own will. With wax he could craft it to any shape and it stayed that way. There was no explicit shine as well. I thought he is on to something until after 5 minutes of conversation with him and his beard just looked plastic and fake… kind of like a toupee.

Bottom line. Oil is too soft and shiny, wax is too rigid and plastic.

Nonetheless, after two years of searching we found the perfect beard styling product that combined the best of both worlds. The perfect product after Movember for your beard is not oil or wax – instead it is balm.

Balm gives you the ability to manipulate your beard in whatever shape you want and, unlike wax, it looks natural and soft. No pixie dust effect is an added bonus. We tried different ones but the one we all liked and will use this December is Heavy Duty Beard Balm. If you want to be proud about your beard and wish for ladies who like men with nicely styled beards to take a notice of you, you should do as I did – stock up on some Heavy Duty Balm before December so you won’t be late for the prime beard season.


To see other products Go-Nayked.com approves for your face click here to visit our Marketplace.

What’s in a Name – Big Business in Natural and Organic

To the average consumer the words “natural” and “organic” seem very straightforward.


If something is natural it comes from nature and has no artificial or man-made ingredients. If something is organic it also comes from nature but from that special place in nature where only good things derive. Unfortunately much like unicorns and fairies the fantasies weaved around these two words have hidden their true meaning and left smart shoppers scratching their heads when reading labels.

Natural = Meaningless

Let’s get this straight from the beginning… natural is a meaningless marketing term and can easily be placed on any product label. Just recently the FDA had to tell cigarette manufacturers to stop overplaying the “natural” in their marketing! There are no statutes, regulations, or industry standards regulating the use of this term.

What this means is that natural is a meaningless word used to market products. Natural is a great marketing phrase and hence its popularity is derived from this; short, sweet, and descriptive the phrase communicates value and prestige. Product manufacturers need to only avoid violating FTC rules about misleading advertising in using the phrase. For example a soda drink company could reasonably use the term natural on their cans of sugar filled water because the “water” is natural but could potentially run into problems, like the cigarette manufacturers, if they then elude to some sort of health benefit from that natural ingredient.

Organic is Organic is What?

On the flip side the term “Organic” actually means something and does have a legal definition. The story on this phrase follows closely with natural in that it started to become a meaningless marketing term until concerned groups raised their voices. The problem was that certain susceptible individuals, those seeking organic due to health, allergy, or dietary requirements, were literally having their lives placed on the line due to the marketing. What exactly is “organic” and how should foods be labeled?

To be organic, a producer must abide by a stringent set of government standards set by the USDA. The specific requirements vary by product but generally the USDA qualifies produce as organic if no synthetic pesticides, chemical fertilizers or genetically modified organisms (GMO) are used.

Using organic ingredients some manufactured goods are able to carry and display the organic label but the labels differ in their meaning. There are currently four distinct categories of “organic” including:

  • 100% organic products
  • Organic (products containing 95% organic ingredients)
  • Made with organic ingredients (containing at least 70% organic ingredients)
  • Less than 70% organic ingredients (seals cannot be used but organic ingredients can be identified)

As you can see even the phrase “organic” can be a bit misleading.

What Can You Do

This is where Go-Nayked.com comes in. Our team has spent thousands of hours (and continues spending thousands more hours) vetting the various products available on the market. Visit the marketplace to see all the products we have cleared as truly being natural and / or organic. Our team reads the labels AND the ingredients AND vets the manufacturers to provide only the products that are good for you and this planet.

If you have a product you are wondering about feel free to leave a comment with the name and we will review it quickly for you.

Think Before You Gift – Natural Gift Idea for Christmas and the Holidays

This is the time of year when family and friends come together to exchange thoughtful gifts; it’s also the time of year when we’re all more likely to get sick.


 

Stress and over consumption of unhealthy foods are common causes of holiday illness, but the gifts you’ve been giving and receiving could also be a culprit. Some of the most common gifts that we give during the holidays can harm the ones we love, and most of us don’t even realize it! At GO-NAYKED.com, we’re doing our part to keep you informed, by revealing the hidden dangers in some of the most common gifts that are exchanged over the holidays.

Cancerous Cuisine

Gift baskets filled with processed meats and cheeses have always been one of my go-to gifts for the man in my life; the way to his heart is through his stomach after all. However, the World Health Organization recently classified processed meats as a group 1 carcinogen, meaning that they definitely cause cancer. Many processed cheeses also contain emulsifiers and dyes that promote tumour growth. This year don’t poison the man in your life with a basket of chemicals or bore him with another tie. Instead, surprise him with the Badger Deluxe Wet Shave Set; made from 100% natural products, this gift will keep him looking and feeling great.

Poisonous Perfume

On the surface, buying someone their favorite fragrance is a thoughtful gift that is always well received. However, most perfumes and colognes are a concoction of undisclosed chemicals that are known to trigger allergies and asthma. Many fragrances also contain an ingredient called diethyl phthalate (DEP); this toxin is used to make the scent linger and it is linked to early puberty in girls, reduced sperm count in men, reproductive defects in the developing male fetus, and obesity and insulin resistance in men. If you want to give your loved one a sweet scent that won’t harm them, try creating a gift basket with 100% Pure shower products; they smell delicious and are 100% non-toxic.

Toxic Tranquility

Holiday stress is bad for your health, and the gift of a spa day for your best friend, wife, or mother will help them start the year feeling revitalized and healthy. But, de-stressing with toxic chemicals is counter-productive and even dangerous. Fortunately, you can give the gift of a spa-day, without putting anyone at risk. If you’re a fan of water spas, stick to places that use natural enzymes and ions rather than chlorine, since absorption of chlorine through the skin is associated with certain types of cancers. You can also opt for a massage package instead of a facial to de-stress in a serene environment without being exposed to a cocktail of mysterious chemicals.

We live in a world where many of the chemicals that we encounter on a daily basis have the potential to harm our health, but we don’t want that to ruin your holidays. That’s why we’re providing the tools you need to think before you gift. You can give your loved ones the gift of health by shopping for natural, healthful products at our Marketplace. You can also help to spread the gift of health and support companies who make safe products by posting one of our Shareables  to your social media pages. From all of us at GO-NAYKED.com have a happy, healthy holiday!

Take the Go-Nayked Winter Pledge

Well friends, hate to say it out loud but we are afraid that winter is on its way. As the weather gets colder, we often (always) find ourselves falling into unhealthy habits. We spend as much time as we can inside with the heat on, which saps the moisture from our skin. We indulge in comfort foods and unhealthy convenience foods and find ourselves binge-watching all of those series that we missed during the summer, when we were too busy enjoying the great outdoors. We know that we are not alone in this, and even if you are one of those rare winter-lovers who we envy, you’re skin probably doesn’t feel the same way about this season as you do.


 

This year is going to be different though, because this winter the staff at Go-Nayked.com are making a pledge to make a change. Rather than let this winter sap our joy and healthy habits with its cold weather and delicious, tempting holiday treats, we’re  pledging to stay healthy – inside and out – and we’re asking you to join us. Winter is supposed to be a time for rejuvenation, so take the Go-Nayked pledge below to embrace the cold and stay healthy by making four promises to yourself and the rest of the Go-Nayked community:

1. I promise to take at least fifteen minutes a day to turn inward and participate in a quiet reflective activity, like meditation, journaling, or prayer.

2. I promise to spend at least thirty minutes a day, five days a week, braving the elements and participating in an outdoor activity.

3. I promise to care for and rejuvenate my skin after daily exposure to the harsh winter elements, using natural, healthful products.

4. I promise to eat healthy snacks throughout the day, so that I don’t binge on unhealthy, convenience foods in the evening.

If you ask us, life is too short to spend four to six months out of every year cooped up inside mistreating our bodies. Commit to embracing the cold this winter by adding your name to the comments below and encourage your friends and family to take the pledge with you.

By spending time outdoors every day we can get our bodies moving and get our daily dose of Vitamin D, just don’t forget to dress warm and protect your skin from UV damage! You can find an array of natural, non-toxic, sunscreens in our marketplace at Go-Nayked.com (check out our blog ‘oxy-benzone the dark side of sunscreen’ to see why it’s important to use a non-toxic sunscreen).


 

One way that I’m going to stay active this winter is by taking snowboarding lessons. To save some money for this and keep my promise to care for my skin, I’ve switched to a DIY winter skincare routine – (Check out the ‘winter skincare’ blog for my exact routine). To fulfill the last two promises, I plan to meditate by the fireplace in the evening and stock up on wholesome, healthy snack bars from Go-Nayked.com. How do you plan to keep your pledge to stay healthy this winter? Share your plans to keep your commitment to turn inward, get outside, care for your skin, and eat healthy during the winter months!

There is Money in Them There… Soaps

In classic Americana television the wild west was dominated by gunslingers, gamblers, and gold prospectors. The dirty dusty open areas were home to wild gun fights, brothels and drinking… at least in the movies that is. In real life and real history the wild west was dictated and developed more for the ores available in the ground and not just the gold and silver. In fact Las Vegas, Death Valley and most of Eastern California was first prospected for the basic ingredient in soap!

Borax is scraped right off the ground and refined for use in a huge number of products including cosmetics and soaps. Now you will not find any products in the Go-Nayked marketplace that include Borax but the point is that there is a ton of money available for the producers of soaps.

The current “gold rush” in soaps is focused on liquid soaps, foamy soaps, and bath washes. These liquid forms of “soap” are marketed as better, more effective, and more hygienic. In reality liquid soaps tend to be a grab for your money and not an effective means for cleaning your body.

How Soap Works

Classic Soaps are designed for one purpose only… aiding water in the removal of dirt from your body. The chemical makeup of soaps and exfoliants (things that scrape skins cells off) are intended solely to interact with your skin, bond with the oils and remove the oils and dirt. The net result is a clean surface. The side-effect of this is the removal of your natural skin oils and cells leaving raw skin exposed to the elements.

Solid form soaps use a combination of ingredients to slough off dirt and leave your body clean. The details get more complicated depending on the product. For example, classic Borax is also used as an insecticide! Some of the tried and true standard off the shelf soaps utilize harsh chemicals to net their oil bonding results.

On the flip side the new generation of liquid soaps are in most cases a waste of money. To get the same cleaning results most standard pump style liquid soaps contain a wide variety of chemicals, alcohols and “lotions”. In addition the average squirt of liquid soap is about 2 to 3 times the volume necessary to clean… this means you are literally washing money down the drain!

Better Soaps

The best soaps for the money remain to be the bar soaps. We have a number of different options approved and available on the Go-Nayked Marketplace. There are a few liquid soaps that work but remember to limit the volume you use; pea size works fine in most cases.

There are two ways to remove dirt from the body: 1. hit it with harsh chemicals or 2. use the scrubbing action of washing to remove the dirt. By sticking to mostly bar soaps you get a more effective “clean” through the act of scrubbing and avoid the surfactants and chemicals found in the majority of liquid soaps.

Unlike the westerns of old you now know that the real money made in the west was from soap and to save your money and protect your health selecting a quality bar soap is the proper choice.

Natural and Organic Makeup and Makeup removers from Go-Nayked

Makeup is make-believe, so how can there be natural makeup? Sounds like an oxymoron? Well, not at Go-Nayked! Makeup is a necessity in today’s world because it not only serves to enhance one’s beauty and cover blemishes but it boosts a woman’s self-esteem. However hectic the day’s demands, who doesn’t stop for a quick beauty touch-up! Unfortunately, not all manufacturers of cosmetics and skin care products conform to the guidelines prescribed by the government. Chemical-laden makeup and personal care products are causing great concern. Go-Nayked.com brings you more choice with organic makeup and natural skincare products pre-screened.

Why should you use only organic makeup?

If you can’t read the name of the ingredient, you are advised not to buy it. By doing so you can save yourself from a host of problems ranging from cancer and Alzheimer’s to itchy skin rashes and breakouts. Medical professionals, health advisors, and communities concerned with wellness are all for organic makeup. There are many reasons to opt for natural makeup products found on the Go-Nayked marketplace.

  • Chemical-free – The Go-Nayked team has resolved to supply consumers with natural personal hygiene products that are devoid of petroleum-based chemicals, lead, or aluminum.
  • Gentle on your skin – Organically-grown fruits, vegetables and essential oils are gifts of Nature and are less likely to harm your skin or your health. There are no toxic pesticides used to grow them. So, you can use them without apprehension of side-effects or permanent damage to your skin from man made ingredients.
  • Rich in nutrients – Organic makeup products found on Go-Nayked come naturally packed with antioxidants that nourish your skin and keep it healthy and young.

Organic makeup and makeup remover brands on Go-Nayked

We use natural makeup to look our best and using anything other than organic and natural cosmetics will really defeat the very purpose! Harsh chemicals in makeup products can dry and damage your skin; additionally, they can lead to premature aging of your skin too. Here are few of the companies on the Go-Nayked marketplace that promise to provide you with quality, organic makeup and skincare.

Zao makeup: This line of naturally enriched makeup formula has a brand name that combines Zen Buddhism and Taoism, both philosophies that rely on Nature. Bamboo is known for its high content of silica that promotes elasticity of skin. Their organic formulations and packaging make extensive use of bamboo.

Zao organic makeup

Thesis organic makeup products: Thesis is a family-run company which is dedicated to the cause of developing vegetarian- organic skincare products. Their products use ingredients that are certified organic, are vegan, cruelty-free and have eco-friendly packing. And they really work! Their mission is to effect a change in the general health of their valued customers and their environment as well.

Thesis organic makeup products

Vika’s Essentials: This organic skincare line functions on applying “Ancient science for modern life”. The products for makeup and skincare are born out of the several years of study, travel and research for the best natural ingredients that have therapeutic and healing effect on our skin. It’s time to take a leap of faith and try their pure organic makeup products!

Vika’s Essentials makeup remover

Feel free to browse through our wide range of non-toxic, natural, and organic makeup products.

Make up your mind to opt for organic makeup! Make a difference!

Stay Calm and Shop Nayked with a Nayked Santa Gift Exchange

Whether you celebrate Christmas, Hanukkah, Christmakkah, Kwanzaa, or Festivus with the rest of us, there is much to be joyful about during the holidays. For many of us though, this joy quickly disappears when the festivities end. All of the spending, cooking, and back-to-back events can leave us feeling physically and financially depleted. At GO-NAYKED.com we can’t take away the stress of dealing with your mother-in-law or your creepy uncle Larry (we’re sorry we wish we could). We can however, help you save time, money, and your health with a Go-Nayked Santa Gift Exchange.


 

Are you familiar with Secret Santa: that awkward holiday tradition where members of a group are randomly assigned to a person for whom they must buy a gift? If you are, you know that these gift exchanges are a great way to save money, but you’ve probably also given or received at least one awful gift. Don’t make that mistake this year, scrap the Secret Santa and organize a Nayked Santa Gift Exchange instead, using the simple tools and features at the GO-NAYKED.com marketplace.

Search the Site to get started; have each person in your group choose items that they love from our selection of safe, natural products. Are you hoping to receive natural lipstick but aren’t sure what specific brand or colour you want? Simply navigate through the intuitive search categories to find all of the options and pick your favourite one. Or you can type lipstick into the search bar, and all of the related products will appear.

Shareable Wish-lists are the perfect way to organize a gift exchange. Once each person in your group has chosen their favourite products, they can add each one to their own customizable wish-list, and then share that list with the rest of the members in the group. We all know that making a list and checking it twice is one of the first steps to successful gift giving, and these lists will ensure that no one receives a gift that they don’t want.

Shop from your phone while you wait. Waiting is annoying at the best of times and it’s downright aggravating around the holidays. Our marketplace makes it easy to purchase products right from your phone, so you can buy your Nayked Santa present while you’re waiting in line for your morning coffee, instead of battling the masses at the mall.

Use the price range filter to set your limit and spend within it. One of the greatest causes of stress during the holidays is overspending and the best way to avoid this is to create a budget and stick to it. Set a spending limit on your Nayked Santa gift exchange to help you stick to your budget. You can then filter all of the products that are above (or below) that limit from your search, eliminating the risk of over spending.

We all have a limited amount of patience, don’t waste yours battling crazed shoppers at the mall or trying to figure out what to buy the co-worker you barely know. You have enough to worry about without that nonsense. Instead, lighten your load by hosting a Go-Nayked Santa Gift Exchange.

Aquarella – Natural Nail Polish

If you are heading for a manicure at your neighborhood Nail Spa, you should read this post. Even if you are not, read this anyway, for it concerns your health and wellness.


 

The Environment Working Group (EWG) has stated that it would review and update the science related to the chemical called, Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) which is commonly used in nail polishes and nail treatments. This chemical could contribute to obesity and disruption of the endocrine system. TPHP is used as a fire retardant in foam furniture and is used to make plastics. Is there an alternative? You don’t have to bite your nails in nervous anticipation, for there is Aquarella – the all-natural nail polish!

www.GO-NAYKED.com brings to you, Aquarella nail polish. It symbolizes all that is natural and pure.

What do egg whites, gelatin, beeswax and gum Arabic have in common? They were the natural ingredients nail polishes were made of in ancient China. The Egyptian upper class had their nails painted with natural henna to a brownish red. Ever the trend-setter, Cleopatra popularized the use of plant extracts to paint the nails red. The Aztecs used natural dyes to decorate their nails. So, when did the shift from natural ingredients to toxic chemicals take place? With commercialization, as always! Aquarella aims to create nail polishes that are rooted in nature. Their products will take you back to an era where everything was better with nothing!

Nail Polish Better with Nothing

A typical nail polish will have a plethora of chemicals in it. A film-forming polymer, petrochemical solvents, plasticizers, dyes and pigments, opalescent pigments such as mica and aluminum powder for the shimmer and shine, adhesive polymers that ensure that the film adheres to the surface of the nail, ultraviolet stabilizer like benzophenone-1, and a thickening agent. Overwhelming? We are just talking about the base coat here. There’s a top coat too! According to studies by the EWG, toxic TPHP can be absorbed by your body and cause hormonal disturbance, reproductive disorders and developmental problems. Is everything bad and nothing good about these chemicals-laden nail polishes? Often, truth can be hard as nails!

Aquarella comes to you in pristine condition. It uses water as the solvent. It is engineered with a safe co-polymer structure. Aquarella is free of odor, has excellent shine, dries fast, and does not need two coats. Most importantly, it has no harmful chemicals and hence, has no adverse impact on your nail and cuticle. Since it is virtually odorless, you can save yourself from the stench of petrochemicals! With water as its solvent, Aquarella contains no questionable ingredients. It is non-toxic and non-inflammable. What’s more, it doesn’t need a drying station! It dries within 5-10 minutes of application, and you are good to go!

Who can use Aquarella? Everyone! People who suffer from allergy and sensitivity to chemicals will benefit the most. There have been a mere ten documented cases of allergies in as many years! Pregnant women, patients suffering from asthma or cancer, the environmentally aware, teenagers and even children can use Aquarella.

All products of the brand are available for immediate purchase from our marketplace, www.GO-NAYKED.com. We try in earnest to bring the best and the most responsibly manufactured products to our community. Help us support this cause.